When paleoanthropologists refer to time in the past, it is done with either relative or chronometric dates. Relative dates give the time of an event with reference to another event that is not worldwide in scale. They tell us simply that one thing is older or younger than another. They do not tell us when an event happened in years before the present.
For example, in comparing the cross-section of the series of geological strata illustrated below, level 4 is older than 5 because it is below it. This does not tell us how many years ago these strata were laid down. It only tells us how old each is relative to the others.
Also, we cannot assume that level 4 in one site is from the same time period as level 4 at a site in another location. In contrast, chronometric dates place events in their chronological position with reference to a universal time scale such as a calendar. All events given the same chronometric date will actually be contemporaneous. Chronometric dates are given in numbers of years since or before the beginning of some calendar system.
For instance, B. Likewise, A. The A. Many different calendar systems have been created around the world. They all have in common the fact that they have a starting point from which one can count forward and backward. That point can be in the past, the present, or the future. Scientists who use chronometric dating methods usually prefer to count years from the present.
The previous year, Charlemagne, a fervent supporter of Christianity and the papacy, came to the aid of Pope Leo III during a rebellion. Charlemagne however, interpreted the act as receiving authority over religious affairs. He often appointed bishops and other church officers, presided over synods and councils, and considered himself to be protector over the church. Charlemagne was also very passionate about religious education. In his attempt to wipe out illiteracy, particularly among the clergy, he established schools and monasteries throughout his kingdom.
His emphasis on the classic early works ushered in a new renaissance of learning. Thus in contrast to many of their successors, the Charles and Leo affiliation was mostly amicable. Charlemagne was also an enthusiastic proponent of the Anno Domini calendar dating system. The power shifted considerably to the Church in when Hildebrand became pope as Gregory VII and instituted a series of reforms.
With the rise of feudalism in the empire, the papacy maintained significant control into the early fourteenth century under strong leaders such as Innocent III and Gregory IX. During this era, the popes generally controlled the political leaders by threatening them with excommunication from the Church or with invasion from another leader who was friendlier to the Church.
During both of these eras of fluctuation and papal dominance, the boundaries and numbers within Christendom greatly increased, with the Holy Roman Empire becoming practically synonymous with Western Christendom. Likewise, the Anno Domini system continued to spread. In the early s AD, the Medieval Church began to decline due to the rise of nationalism, increasing immorality and secularization within the Church, and negative reactions against the Inquisition, Crusades and questionable fund-raising techniques by the Church.
Yet by this time, the Anno Domini system was firmly in place in most Roman Catholic controlled territory as well as many Eastern areas. The winds of change that began in the early fourteenth century reached hurricane strength about years later when several protestant reformations broke out in various European countries the best known was the Lutheran Reformation in Germany.
It soon became clear that a resolution with the Roman Church could not be reached, so the Church split.
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