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The use of online dating apps was also associated with lifetime sexual abuse, especially among sexual minorities i. These data need to be interpreted cautiously because the data did not discern whether the abuser was met online or offline. Further studies should discriminate whether or not the abuser was met via dating apps. The first study was qualitative, with focus groups including 16 participants eight males with ages ranging from 14 to 17 years.

The focus group data analysis resulted in identifying several factors which were later included in the development of a scale second study. Couch and Liamputtong interviewed 15 participants from Melbourne Australia via online chat, eleven males aged between 24 and 44 years. In a later study, Couch et al. After conducting the interviews via an online chat platform, they found that participants identified risks such as deceit, sexual risks, emotional and physical risks and risks of encountering dangerous and untrustworthy people.

Additionally, one of the key features of online dating i. Heino et al. Another study carried out with 38 older Slovenian adults between 63 and 77 years of age 18 females found that participants used economic metaphors e. Based on these findings, further research could study the relationship between objectification of others and self in online dating use and mental health problems.

Overall, the studies covered in this section demonstrate that online dating is perceived as more dangerous than traditional offline dating. The perceived risks appear to coincide across studies, mainly involving deception, sexual harassment, and finding untrustworthy people. However, only one study Choi et al. There is agreement on the general perception of risks and the objectification effect by filtering through multiple profiles.

Findings come mainly from qualitative studies; therefore, they are informative, but further analysis on more representative populations using quantitative approaches is needed to support these results. There is an important body of research studying impulsive behaviours mainly in the form of risky sexual choices in the context of online dating.

Consequently, a total of ten studies in relation to online dating were identified examining risky sexual behaviours Choi et al. All the studies were quantitative and cross-sectional Choi et al. In terms of samples, six of the studies focused exclusively on men who have sex with men MSM Chow et al. Of those, at least were male participants ten did not answer the gender question.

The aim was to examine the relationship between smartphone dating apps and risky sexual behaviours i. In the first study Choi et al. Additionally, the use of dating apps for a period longer than 12 months was associated with having casual condomless sex in the most recent sexual interaction. In the second study Choi et al. For example, dating app users and alcohol drinkers were less likely to use a condom during sex alcohol consumption was categorised as current drinker or non-drinker.

Being bisexual, homosexual, or female was significantly correlated with being less likely to have used a condom during the most recent sexual interaction. Regarding homosexual populations, Chow et al. Findings reported that MSM who used dating apps were 1. Additionally, a significant relationship between alcohol and drug use and condomless sex was found drugs and alcohol consumption data were collected via an item based on a retrospective account of the last three months in conjunction with dating app use.

In contrast to these findings, Heijman et al. The results found no significant association with dating app use and condomless sex among HIV-negative users; conversely, HIV-positive users were found to be more likely to perform anal sex without a condom, indicating that there are differences in risky sexual choices by MSM in the context of online dating. However, this association was not significant after inclusion of partnership characteristics in the multivariate model e.

HIV status, ethnic origin, and age. The authors suggested that knowing more information about partners i. HIV status, lifestyle concordance, and ethnic origin works as a mediating effect for condomless sex in the context of online dating. Nonetheless, Whitfield et al. In order to explain the factors involved in the decision-making of sexual risky behaviours among MSM who actively use online dating platforms, Kok et al. Fantasising about condomless sex was found to have a direct effect on intention to carry out condomless sex intention is considered by the theory of planned behaviour to be the most reliable predictor of behaviour Ajzen ; Kok et al.

In relation to online dating apps, it could be argued that specific structural characteristics e. However, further research is needed to relate the aforementioned structural characteristics of dating apps and sexual behaviour. Regarding behavioural changes among computer online dating and smartphone dating apps, Jung et al. As a consequence of computer-to-smartphone shift, the authors noted that men had increased impulsivity i. For example, viewing profiles of individuals from a different ethnic background increased by Therefore, according to these results, there appears to be an effect on the ubiquity factor to becoming more engaged and presumably increasing the chances of developing a misuse pattern of online dating services when using smartphone dating apps rather than computer-based online sites.

According to March et al. Taking these two studies together Jung et al. Overall, the results presented in this section suggest that online daters have higher chances of behaving impulsively in comparison to non-users in terms of risky sexual choices. The behaviours covered were mostly of sexual nature and focused mainly on homosexual male populations MSM.

Nonetheless, it could be beneficial for the sake of generalisability to know if these results can be replicated across individuals with other sexual orientations i. In the final selection of studies, there are only two studies that have examined the relationship between online dating and substance use addiction Boonchutima and Kongchan ; Choi et al. Boonchutima and Kongchan surveyed a sample of MSM from Thailand three out of four respondents aged 18 to 35 years and asked about their online dating app use, sexual history, drug use history and intention of using drugs.

Furthermore, one in three substance users Therefore, according to the findings, there may be an association between illegal drug use and condomless sex. Nevertheless, it should be noted there is no mention regarding what type of illicit drugs was used. Regarding alcohol consumption and online dating, Choi et al. In a later study, Choi et al. Again, the specific substances were not mentioned and were coined as recreational drugs alcohol was independent of the recreational drugs category.

It would be useful for further research to specify the respective substances as the scope of illicit or recreational drugs can be extensive. According to these studies, the co-occurrence of substance use with risky sexual behaviour in the context of online dating was indicated. Nonetheless, caution needs to be used with regard to this assumption because the assessed samples were skewed towards MSM; therefore, generalising the results to the general population is not possible.

In relation to behavioural addictions in the context of online dating, Zlot et al. In order to collect data, participants answered a series of validated psychometric instruments that were integrated in an online questionnaire. Following the analysis, associations were found between users of dating apps and higher scores on sexual addiction measures in comparison to non-app users, as well as a positive correlation between social anxiety and the use of smartphone dating.

Again, the relationship between anxiety-tendency factors and the use of online dating was supported as was mentioned in the preceding sections. The scarcity of the literature limits the conclusions. However, the findings can be considered as a guide for future study examining substance use and other types of behavioural addictions with online dating.

There appears to be a relationship between substance use among partners who have met via online dating, at least among MSM who use dating apps. In relation to substance use and online dating among heterosexual populations, data come from only one study that reported no direct relationship Choi et al.

In terms of behavioural addiction, only sex addiction has been studied and it was found to be related to dating app use Zlot et al. To date, only two studies have exclusively focused on problematic online dating. Both studies were quantitative and developed validated psychometric scales Orosz et al.

One of the studies used a mixed-methods approach Orosz et al. The two studies solely focused on one specific dating app i. In the first study, Orosz et al. This self-report measure is based on the components model of addiction Griffiths , which comprises six characteristics of addiction: salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict and relapse. In the second study, Orosz et al.

The results were weak in relation to personality factors and the four main motivations for Tinder use. However, self-esteem enhancement was related to Tinder use. The results showed that relatedness frustration i. Overall, the studies presented in this section are not sufficient in terms of quantity to consider online dating addiction as an entity.

However, the studies are of general interest to researchers considering the widespread use of dating apps and provide insight in relation to factors such as self-esteem and sex-searching that may be related to the development of problematic patterns of use. Even though there is a scarcity of literature examining problematic use of online dating, there is some research that appears to support the findings presented in this section.

Further study is needed to consider the relevant factors that have been suggested as predictors of problematic use, self-esteem and sex-searching motives, with a cross-cultural approach in order to inform of possible cultural differences in relation to problematic use. Also, other dating apps could be subject of study to examine if there are any differences in terms of motives that could lead to problematic use.

The present paper reviewed the literature concerning the use of online dating focusing on problematic online dating computer-based and smartphone apps , characteristics of users e. Due to the lack of previous literature on problematic use of online dating, socio-demographic and psychological characteristics e.

Even though longer-time use cannot be considered as problematic or addictive per se , it could be a reference point for future research in the field. The growth in this service may be due to different reasons, and as with other forms of internet use e. Nevertheless, online dating developers have acknowledged that design is made to engage the user and increase monetisation of the business Jung et al.

Considering that dating apps have a similar user interaction design i. Further research is needed to confirm such a speculation. In terms of personality correlates, reviewed studies pointed out that sociability, anxious attachment style, social anxiety, lower conscientiousness, higher sensation-seeking, and sexual permissiveness were associated with higher use of online dating sexual permissiveness and lower conscientiousness have also been related to sex-searching in the context of online dating Blackhart et al.

Likewise, SNS research has suggested that higher extraversion, social anxiety, loneliness, and lower self-efficacy are related to Facebook addiction Atroszko et al. Neurotic correlates i. Furthermore, the relationship between anxiety traits and neuroticism has been upheld by a great body of research in behavioural addictions Andreassen et al. Therefore, considering this association, it is recommended that future research should study this relationship with the problematic use of online dating.

To date, only one study has related self-esteem enhancement to problematic use of Tinder Orosz et al. Considering that anxious attachment, and generally anxiety-tendency correlates i. Another form of problematic use of dating apps, more specifically Tinder, is sex-search use Orosz et al. As previously discussed, sex-search use of online dating has been related to higher measures of sexual permissiveness, sensation-seeking, and lower conscientiousness.

Furthermore, in one study, sex addiction was related to greater use of online dating sites Zlot et al. Being a homosexual man has also been related to sex-search motives Clemens et al. The reviewed studies supported an association between dating app use and condomless sex in comparison to non-dating app users, even though there are some studies that did not find this association Heijman et al.

Nonetheless, homosexual men may be at higher risk of problematic use of online dating due to the prominent sex-search motive for online dating. Finding casual sexual partners in online dating services is facilitated by some apps that show how far users are from each other i. This structural characteristic GPS-based service may be related to higher impulsive decisions and problematic use of online dating.

Arguably, by showing up walking-distance profiles, it is easier to engage in casual dates and this may serve as a self-esteem enhancement mechanism, as previously discussed, which may increase engagement and usage of online dating services. However, further research is needed to support this association and how the different structural mechanisms of the respective dating apps affect measures of well being in users.

Previous research has associated sexting with risky sexual behaviour Klettke et al. Sexting through dating applications may as well increase the sex-search motive of users i. However, further study is needed to provide evidence in order to relate chatting through dating apps and sexting, and how this may influence the appearance of sexual behaviour e. Some of the reviewed studies concerning associated risks converge on the findings that generally online dating users find online dating to have specific risks, including deceit, fear of physical harassment, and financial exploitation.

Additionally, there is a body of research that points to the objectifying environment that emerges in online dating e. It is of concern that objectification of other users may increase self-objectification Koval et al. Therefore, further research should study the emotional experience of users and consider how longer time of use may influence wellbeing measures and clinical mental health symptoms through self-objectification.

Regarding methodology, some weaknesses limit the strength of the findings in the reviewed studies. First, cross-sectional design prevents from making causality inferences and to know the directionality of the results e. Second, some of the measures present limitations which may bias the results e. Third, some samples limit the external validity of the findings i. Therefore, it is recommended for further study to i use more diverse samples, ii consider methodologies that can establish causality, and iii collect data using self-reports together with interviews to increase internal validity.

In addition to the latter, it could be useful to collect real-life measures of online dating use which assess the temporal stability of usage and may provide some insightful objective data that self-report measures cannot facilitate, such as using the experience sampling method ESM , which is defined as a research procedure by which participants respond to a series of questions multiple times a day during a specific period of time Larson and Csikszentmihalyi All of these proposals would help to overcome the present limitations of these studies and provide more robust insights in the field of online dating utilising the highest standards of empirical research.

This current systematic review presents a number of limitations. First, there are some studies that do not specify whether their findings are based on online dating sites, mobile applications, or both. This is necessary in order to differentiate the distinctive phenomena of each service. Second, online dating services include a great variety of apps and sites; therefore, including all of them under the term online dating services may be reductionist and ignore different processes i.

Third, due to the paucity in previous research in the field of online dating, some conclusions are based on a limited amount of studies, and further study will be needed in order to support current findings and conclusions. Lastly, considering that the field of online dating research is growing over time, it is likely that studies under the process of submission or publication have been not included in this review.

Online dating has become an extended service across technological societies. The present review is the first attempt to gather empirical findings regarding the use of online dating services sites and smartphone applications and problematic use of online dating. Findings in this this review indicate that there are personality correlates such as sociability, sensation-seeking, sexual permissiveness, and anxious attachment that correlate to greater use of online dating.

Self-esteem enhancement and sex-search motives have been related to problematic use of online dating more specifically of the dating app Tinder. Other results indicate that users consider online dating as more dangerous than offline i. Additionally, online dating services facilitate casual encounters i. Ajzen, I.

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CyberPsychology and Behavior, 12 4 , — Klettke, B. The study also found that people preferred a potential partner to be of mixed or ambiguous race instead of a blatantly different race than their own. OkCupid co-founder, Christian Rudder, confirmed her findings.

According to the researchers at the University of California San Diego, the majority of heterosexuals on OKCupid did contact people of another race or at least answer messages from them. A group of U. According to Professor Eli Finkel , who worked on the report, "We reviewed the literature and feel safe to conclude they do not [work].

This surprising statistic comes from a survey conducted in late by the Pew Research Center. Even more surprising, this is actually a significantly lower number than it used to be. In , over half of people with online dating profiles never went on an in-person date with someone they had met on the site.

Men get more messages if they are Christian, brunette, high-earners, and PhDs. A recent study that claims couples who met on dating sites are less likely to get married has been getting a lot of traction on the Internet. Researchers from Stanford University and Michigan State University surveyed more than people and they learned that breakups were more common in couples who met online versus offline.

They claim that the phenomenon holds true for both married and unmarried couples. Obviously this phenomenon needs to be studied a little more. A study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences found that 35 percent of the 20, people who responded to a survey met their spouse online. The study also contradicts the Stanford and Michigan State study by claiming that couples who met online have a 6 percent separation and divorce rate whereas couples who met offline have an 8 percent rate.


However, research is already underway to find specific pheromone-induced brain responses in both homosexual men and women Berglund et al , ; Savic et al , Although sequencing DNA to find a soul mate might sound like a ludicrous application of genetics, investigating the genetic compatibility of couples is already routine practice for groups or populations that have a high risk of specific severe genetic diseases. The couples have to be informed of the test results before their marriage, but the choice is theirs of whether or not to marry.

Genetic screening is also common among Ashkenazi Jews, who have a higher risk of suffering from one of several monogenetic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, Tay—Sachs or Bloom syndrome. These screening programmes have reduced considerably the number of babies affected by these diseases Kronn et al , There is a kind of irony in online dating in that courtship and romantic love are profoundly physical experiences that manifest with symptoms including sweaty palms, reddened cheeks or tied tongues; but internet dating, owing to its virtual nature, is utterly disembodying.

For Eva Illouz, professor of sociology and anthropology at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel, this rearticulates the relationship between corporeality and emotions: in the absence of the body, emotions are supposed to flow freely between authentic aspects of the core self Illouz, Knowledge of another person therefore precedes the bodily attraction.

Websites such as ScientificMatch. By contrast, genetic information on biological compatibility is not standardized and genuinely represents an individual's uniqueness. The use of biological information seems to reassure customers that they will find a better match. Nevertheless, the real question remains as to whether the use of genetics is proving more effective than traditional matching methods.

Indeed, there is a good deal of skepticism concerning the reliability of DNA-based dating services. For example, there is some debate about the extent to which HLA diversity is actually reflected in a person's scent, and therefore whether such differences can genuinely be picked up by the body's olfactory bulbs.

Deciphering the genetics and neurochemistry of love might, therefore, cast a disenchanting shadow over some cultural practices. These companies are taking advantage of a public who have been educated by the media.

Courtship, seduction and romantic love are complex phenomena that involve many genes and a multitude of social and cultural factors. In this regard, a Shakespearean sonnet, or other works of classical romance might still prove more instructive and interesting for anyone desirous to understand the rules and excitement of courtship and love than would taking a genetic test.

Haunted by the inherent uncertainties of life, people are drawn to any service or person that promises to predict the future…. You can know every single part of an engine in a Bentley or a Ferrari, and still feel the rush and joy of driving it. A little bit of knowledge about the relevant brain mechanisms just refines this ancient process.

More serious concerns have been raised about the possible misapplication of the growing knowledge of emotional chemistry to manipulate the brain and enhance or diminish emotions for others—in essence, the creation of love potions. We already try that by buying our prospective partners flowers, candy, romantic settings, hugging and kissing, all of which stimulate the chemistry of love, such as dopamine or oxytocin.

More generally, the use of genetic knowledge and technology to predict intimate aspects of our lives confirms the persistence of naive biological determinism among the public. In the case of finding the perfect mate, modern changes to contemporary lifestyles and social connectedness, as well as the difficulty of actually finding the right partner, mean that this simplistic view of the role of genes is driving would-be lovers to services that claim to offer science-based fixes.

In addition to the potentially disenchanting effect of using science to prescribe romance, emotional compatibility and loving relationships, the increasing tendency to apply genetics to multiple areas of social interaction and behaviour raises more general issues about the growing encroachment of genetics and neuroscience into personal lives. Haunted by the inherent uncertainties of life, people are drawn to any service or person that promises to predict the future—from tarot cards to palm readers, and even to genetic tests.

Perhaps it was therefore only a matter of time before biology became entangled in attempting to predict the budding of love and the outcome of relationships. But love is ambiguous, unpredictable and hardly respectful of laws. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. EMBO Rep. On average, the women described themselves as 8. Men fibbed by 2 pounds, though they lied by a greater magnitude than women about their height, rounding up a half inch apparently every bit counts.

People were most honest about their age, something Professor Toma said is probably because they can claim ignorance about weight and height. A paper to be published in the Journal of Communication used computer analysis to show that four linguistic indictors can help detect lying in the personal essay of a dating profile.

Liars tend to use fewer first-person pronouns. Scholars say a certain amount of fibbing is socially acceptable — even necessary — to compete in the online dating culture. So profiles often describe an idealized self; one with qualities they intend to develop i. Some daters bend the truth to fit into a wider range of search parameters; others unintentionally misrepresent their personalities because self-knowledge is imperfect.

The standard of embellishment can frustrate the honest. She subsequently lost 44 pounds while online dating. And they have observed this among online daters. But here is what they did not expect to discover: a very high rate of same-ethnicity dating. Research on a major dating site between February and February by Professor Mendelsohn and his colleagues shows that more than 80 percent of the contacts initiated by white members were to other white members, and only 3 percent to black members.

Black members were less rigid: they were 10 times more likely to contact whites than whites were to contact blacks. Professor Mendelsohn set out to study relationship formation, not ethnicity. Yet along the way he found that white more than black, women more than men, and old more than young prefer a same-race partner.

Women want men who are — wait for it — tall and wealthy, according to online dating research by Gunter J. The researchers have examined thousands of dating profiles that included height, weight and, in many cases, photographs.

They found that women prefer men who are slightly overweight, while men prefer women who are slightly underweight and who do not tower over them. These were the women who had the best chance of receiving an introductory e-mail from a man.

And even though men may get away with carrying a few extra pounds, they are also burdened with the expectation of carrying a fatter wallet: The scholars found that women have a stronger preference than men do for income over physical attributes. Decades of findings about political ideology suggest that it is in part passed from parents to children, said Rose McDermott, a professor of political science at Brown University.

And because previous studies show that people in long marriages align politically the crackling example of James Carville and Mary Matalin aside , she wanted to study how people end up with like-minded mates. Professor McDermott and colleagues at the University of Miami and Penn State examined 2, dating profiles, and few people were willing to express a political preference or interest in politics.


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30% of U.S. adults say they have used a dating site or app. A majority of online daters say their overall experience was positive, but many users. Monica Anderson, associate director of internet and technology research, speaks about our latest report on the world of online dating. Main Findings · As many as one-in-three people are dating online · People turn to online dating for a variety of reasons – 48% do it for fun, while some look for more​.