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We found that a worrying number of online dating users are, through their profiles, placing sensitive information about themselves into the public domain, which could potentially lead them to harm if the information was to fall into the wrong hands. All of this information, in the wrong hands, can be used to track online dating users and their families online and offline, to crack their accounts by guessing passwords, for blackmail, and more.

That, of course, is not always a safe or a good thing. However, there is a disparity between men and women. When it comes to personal information, men are ready to share information about themselves much faster than women are. Despite the high proportion of people who use online dating services or apps, there are several factors that can put users off. People might turn to online dating for fun and to strike up new relationships, but ironically our study shows that a large number of people lie in the process, and this in itself is off-putting.

Among those that admitted they lie during online dating, the most popular things to lie about include their names, marital status, location and appearance — such as by showing fake photos. Either way, people faking it is one of the most hated aspects of online dating. So, why are people lying online? But other reasons vary from people trying to catch their partners cheating, to trying to make themselves look better, or simply lying for the fun of it.

With people lying for a variety of reasons online, safety, naturally, becomes something that we should question. With online dating so prevalent, users are clearly giving strangers access to their lives, which could perhaps be why those who date online have concerns about their online safety. Meanwhile, older age groups have slightly different concerns.

The data suggests that men put themselves at risk more than women. In addition, around one-in-ten have had their device hacked, have had their data infected, shared, or become the victim of financial fraud. However, the study also shows that people are not protecting themselves properly when they are dating online. So, there is an awareness and certain level of concern about the dangers involved in online dating. This just needs to translate into action. Today, people are time-poor, and we rely on our digital devices to help us manage our schedules, our busy lives, and how we interact with others.

Digital devices act as a window to the rest of the world, including our relationships. This is even more the case where online dating is concerned. This form of striking up new relationships is entirely dependent on our digital platforms or smart devices. People are, because of online dating, literally carrying their dates around with them in their pockets. While this comes with a large amount of convenience, it also comes with its own risks. Online dating, indeed, requires the exchange of a certain level of information which, if placed in the wrong hands, can be misused.

They are also at heightened risk of experiencing an IT security-related problem such as having their data leaked or exposed in some way. Yet, they do little to protect themselves, with only one-in-three putting basic security measures in place such as using strong passwords or restraining themselves to sharing limited information about themselves online. The boundary between online dating and the real world can very easily be blurred.

Information about home addresses, once shared, can very quickly result in strangers turning up on doorsteps, personal information and sensitive photos can very easily turn into blackmail opportunities or put hacked accounts in the hands of cybercriminals. Far from advising people to reduce their online dating activities, we simply would like to advise online daters to exercise caution, just like they would in the physical world. If you chose to date online, be careful not to click on unknown links that could be malicious, and try to avoid using insecure Wi-Fi hotspots where data can be intercepted by cybercriminals.

Furthermore, use protection in the form of a security solution and strong, hard-to-guess passwords, be savvy about how much data you give away and, importantly, look after the data you care about the most. Solutions for:. Dangerous Liaisons: is everyone doing it online? The first study was qualitative, with focus groups including 16 participants eight males with ages ranging from 14 to 17 years. The focus group data analysis resulted in identifying several factors which were later included in the development of a scale second study.

Couch and Liamputtong interviewed 15 participants from Melbourne Australia via online chat, eleven males aged between 24 and 44 years. In a later study, Couch et al. After conducting the interviews via an online chat platform, they found that participants identified risks such as deceit, sexual risks, emotional and physical risks and risks of encountering dangerous and untrustworthy people. Additionally, one of the key features of online dating i. Heino et al. Another study carried out with 38 older Slovenian adults between 63 and 77 years of age 18 females found that participants used economic metaphors e.

Based on these findings, further research could study the relationship between objectification of others and self in online dating use and mental health problems. Overall, the studies covered in this section demonstrate that online dating is perceived as more dangerous than traditional offline dating. The perceived risks appear to coincide across studies, mainly involving deception, sexual harassment, and finding untrustworthy people.

However, only one study Choi et al. There is agreement on the general perception of risks and the objectification effect by filtering through multiple profiles. Findings come mainly from qualitative studies; therefore, they are informative, but further analysis on more representative populations using quantitative approaches is needed to support these results.

There is an important body of research studying impulsive behaviours mainly in the form of risky sexual choices in the context of online dating. Consequently, a total of ten studies in relation to online dating were identified examining risky sexual behaviours Choi et al.

All the studies were quantitative and cross-sectional Choi et al. In terms of samples, six of the studies focused exclusively on men who have sex with men MSM Chow et al. Of those, at least were male participants ten did not answer the gender question. The aim was to examine the relationship between smartphone dating apps and risky sexual behaviours i.

In the first study Choi et al. Additionally, the use of dating apps for a period longer than 12 months was associated with having casual condomless sex in the most recent sexual interaction. In the second study Choi et al. For example, dating app users and alcohol drinkers were less likely to use a condom during sex alcohol consumption was categorised as current drinker or non-drinker.

Being bisexual, homosexual, or female was significantly correlated with being less likely to have used a condom during the most recent sexual interaction. Regarding homosexual populations, Chow et al. Findings reported that MSM who used dating apps were 1. Additionally, a significant relationship between alcohol and drug use and condomless sex was found drugs and alcohol consumption data were collected via an item based on a retrospective account of the last three months in conjunction with dating app use.

In contrast to these findings, Heijman et al. The results found no significant association with dating app use and condomless sex among HIV-negative users; conversely, HIV-positive users were found to be more likely to perform anal sex without a condom, indicating that there are differences in risky sexual choices by MSM in the context of online dating.

However, this association was not significant after inclusion of partnership characteristics in the multivariate model e. HIV status, ethnic origin, and age. The authors suggested that knowing more information about partners i. HIV status, lifestyle concordance, and ethnic origin works as a mediating effect for condomless sex in the context of online dating. Nonetheless, Whitfield et al. In order to explain the factors involved in the decision-making of sexual risky behaviours among MSM who actively use online dating platforms, Kok et al.

Fantasising about condomless sex was found to have a direct effect on intention to carry out condomless sex intention is considered by the theory of planned behaviour to be the most reliable predictor of behaviour Ajzen ; Kok et al. In relation to online dating apps, it could be argued that specific structural characteristics e. However, further research is needed to relate the aforementioned structural characteristics of dating apps and sexual behaviour.

Regarding behavioural changes among computer online dating and smartphone dating apps, Jung et al. As a consequence of computer-to-smartphone shift, the authors noted that men had increased impulsivity i. For example, viewing profiles of individuals from a different ethnic background increased by Therefore, according to these results, there appears to be an effect on the ubiquity factor to becoming more engaged and presumably increasing the chances of developing a misuse pattern of online dating services when using smartphone dating apps rather than computer-based online sites.

According to March et al. Taking these two studies together Jung et al. Overall, the results presented in this section suggest that online daters have higher chances of behaving impulsively in comparison to non-users in terms of risky sexual choices. The behaviours covered were mostly of sexual nature and focused mainly on homosexual male populations MSM.

Nonetheless, it could be beneficial for the sake of generalisability to know if these results can be replicated across individuals with other sexual orientations i. In the final selection of studies, there are only two studies that have examined the relationship between online dating and substance use addiction Boonchutima and Kongchan ; Choi et al. Boonchutima and Kongchan surveyed a sample of MSM from Thailand three out of four respondents aged 18 to 35 years and asked about their online dating app use, sexual history, drug use history and intention of using drugs.

Furthermore, one in three substance users Therefore, according to the findings, there may be an association between illegal drug use and condomless sex. Nevertheless, it should be noted there is no mention regarding what type of illicit drugs was used. Regarding alcohol consumption and online dating, Choi et al. In a later study, Choi et al. Again, the specific substances were not mentioned and were coined as recreational drugs alcohol was independent of the recreational drugs category.

It would be useful for further research to specify the respective substances as the scope of illicit or recreational drugs can be extensive. According to these studies, the co-occurrence of substance use with risky sexual behaviour in the context of online dating was indicated. Nonetheless, caution needs to be used with regard to this assumption because the assessed samples were skewed towards MSM; therefore, generalising the results to the general population is not possible.

In relation to behavioural addictions in the context of online dating, Zlot et al. In order to collect data, participants answered a series of validated psychometric instruments that were integrated in an online questionnaire. Following the analysis, associations were found between users of dating apps and higher scores on sexual addiction measures in comparison to non-app users, as well as a positive correlation between social anxiety and the use of smartphone dating.

Again, the relationship between anxiety-tendency factors and the use of online dating was supported as was mentioned in the preceding sections. The scarcity of the literature limits the conclusions. However, the findings can be considered as a guide for future study examining substance use and other types of behavioural addictions with online dating. There appears to be a relationship between substance use among partners who have met via online dating, at least among MSM who use dating apps.

In relation to substance use and online dating among heterosexual populations, data come from only one study that reported no direct relationship Choi et al. In terms of behavioural addiction, only sex addiction has been studied and it was found to be related to dating app use Zlot et al.

To date, only two studies have exclusively focused on problematic online dating. Both studies were quantitative and developed validated psychometric scales Orosz et al. One of the studies used a mixed-methods approach Orosz et al. The two studies solely focused on one specific dating app i. In the first study, Orosz et al. This self-report measure is based on the components model of addiction Griffiths , which comprises six characteristics of addiction: salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal, conflict and relapse.

In the second study, Orosz et al. The results were weak in relation to personality factors and the four main motivations for Tinder use. However, self-esteem enhancement was related to Tinder use. The results showed that relatedness frustration i.

Overall, the studies presented in this section are not sufficient in terms of quantity to consider online dating addiction as an entity. However, the studies are of general interest to researchers considering the widespread use of dating apps and provide insight in relation to factors such as self-esteem and sex-searching that may be related to the development of problematic patterns of use.

Even though there is a scarcity of literature examining problematic use of online dating, there is some research that appears to support the findings presented in this section. Further study is needed to consider the relevant factors that have been suggested as predictors of problematic use, self-esteem and sex-searching motives, with a cross-cultural approach in order to inform of possible cultural differences in relation to problematic use.

Also, other dating apps could be subject of study to examine if there are any differences in terms of motives that could lead to problematic use. The present paper reviewed the literature concerning the use of online dating focusing on problematic online dating computer-based and smartphone apps , characteristics of users e. Due to the lack of previous literature on problematic use of online dating, socio-demographic and psychological characteristics e.

Even though longer-time use cannot be considered as problematic or addictive per se , it could be a reference point for future research in the field. The growth in this service may be due to different reasons, and as with other forms of internet use e. Nevertheless, online dating developers have acknowledged that design is made to engage the user and increase monetisation of the business Jung et al.

Considering that dating apps have a similar user interaction design i. Further research is needed to confirm such a speculation. In terms of personality correlates, reviewed studies pointed out that sociability, anxious attachment style, social anxiety, lower conscientiousness, higher sensation-seeking, and sexual permissiveness were associated with higher use of online dating sexual permissiveness and lower conscientiousness have also been related to sex-searching in the context of online dating Blackhart et al.

Likewise, SNS research has suggested that higher extraversion, social anxiety, loneliness, and lower self-efficacy are related to Facebook addiction Atroszko et al. Neurotic correlates i. Furthermore, the relationship between anxiety traits and neuroticism has been upheld by a great body of research in behavioural addictions Andreassen et al. Therefore, considering this association, it is recommended that future research should study this relationship with the problematic use of online dating.

To date, only one study has related self-esteem enhancement to problematic use of Tinder Orosz et al. Considering that anxious attachment, and generally anxiety-tendency correlates i. Another form of problematic use of dating apps, more specifically Tinder, is sex-search use Orosz et al.

As previously discussed, sex-search use of online dating has been related to higher measures of sexual permissiveness, sensation-seeking, and lower conscientiousness. Furthermore, in one study, sex addiction was related to greater use of online dating sites Zlot et al.

Being a homosexual man has also been related to sex-search motives Clemens et al. The reviewed studies supported an association between dating app use and condomless sex in comparison to non-dating app users, even though there are some studies that did not find this association Heijman et al. Nonetheless, homosexual men may be at higher risk of problematic use of online dating due to the prominent sex-search motive for online dating.

Finding casual sexual partners in online dating services is facilitated by some apps that show how far users are from each other i. This structural characteristic GPS-based service may be related to higher impulsive decisions and problematic use of online dating.

Arguably, by showing up walking-distance profiles, it is easier to engage in casual dates and this may serve as a self-esteem enhancement mechanism, as previously discussed, which may increase engagement and usage of online dating services. However, further research is needed to support this association and how the different structural mechanisms of the respective dating apps affect measures of well being in users. Previous research has associated sexting with risky sexual behaviour Klettke et al.

Sexting through dating applications may as well increase the sex-search motive of users i. However, further study is needed to provide evidence in order to relate chatting through dating apps and sexting, and how this may influence the appearance of sexual behaviour e. Some of the reviewed studies concerning associated risks converge on the findings that generally online dating users find online dating to have specific risks, including deceit, fear of physical harassment, and financial exploitation.

Additionally, there is a body of research that points to the objectifying environment that emerges in online dating e. It is of concern that objectification of other users may increase self-objectification Koval et al. Therefore, further research should study the emotional experience of users and consider how longer time of use may influence wellbeing measures and clinical mental health symptoms through self-objectification.

Regarding methodology, some weaknesses limit the strength of the findings in the reviewed studies. First, cross-sectional design prevents from making causality inferences and to know the directionality of the results e. Second, some of the measures present limitations which may bias the results e.

Third, some samples limit the external validity of the findings i. Therefore, it is recommended for further study to i use more diverse samples, ii consider methodologies that can establish causality, and iii collect data using self-reports together with interviews to increase internal validity. In addition to the latter, it could be useful to collect real-life measures of online dating use which assess the temporal stability of usage and may provide some insightful objective data that self-report measures cannot facilitate, such as using the experience sampling method ESM , which is defined as a research procedure by which participants respond to a series of questions multiple times a day during a specific period of time Larson and Csikszentmihalyi All of these proposals would help to overcome the present limitations of these studies and provide more robust insights in the field of online dating utilising the highest standards of empirical research.

This current systematic review presents a number of limitations. First, there are some studies that do not specify whether their findings are based on online dating sites, mobile applications, or both. This is necessary in order to differentiate the distinctive phenomena of each service.

Second, online dating services include a great variety of apps and sites; therefore, including all of them under the term online dating services may be reductionist and ignore different processes i. Third, due to the paucity in previous research in the field of online dating, some conclusions are based on a limited amount of studies, and further study will be needed in order to support current findings and conclusions.

Lastly, considering that the field of online dating research is growing over time, it is likely that studies under the process of submission or publication have been not included in this review. Online dating has become an extended service across technological societies. The present review is the first attempt to gather empirical findings regarding the use of online dating services sites and smartphone applications and problematic use of online dating.

Findings in this this review indicate that there are personality correlates such as sociability, sensation-seeking, sexual permissiveness, and anxious attachment that correlate to greater use of online dating. Self-esteem enhancement and sex-search motives have been related to problematic use of online dating more specifically of the dating app Tinder. Other results indicate that users consider online dating as more dangerous than offline i. Additionally, online dating services facilitate casual encounters i.

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